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Underground cave systems have a unique fascination for explorers, with their soaring caverns, breath-taking formations, and potential for finding uncharted passageways. Illustrated throughout with stunning photographs and explanatory diagrams, The Complete Caving Manual is a comprehensive guide to safe, responsible caving for novices and experts alike. Topics covered include: how caves and cave formations develop; modern caving equipment; planning and preparation for a caving trip; party leadership; horizontal techniques; vertical techniques and rope work; dealing with emergencies; exploring underground; cave flora and fauna, and where to cave.